Fair and Equitable as in F&E cost distribution.
Failure, Adhesive
Rupture of an adhesive bond, such that the plane of separation appears to be at the adhesive-adhered interface.
As in "fair" rate of return. In ratemaking "fair" is a subjective term requiring significant study to support the proposed level.
Fair Value
In determining the company's Rate Base by this method you can either (1) estimate the cost to rebuild, (2) inflation adjust or trend Original Cost, or (3) estimate the market value. See ORIGINAL COST.
Farm Tap
A small meter station off of a transmission line usually to serve one customer.
An arrangement whereby the owner of a lease assigns the lease, or some portion of it, to another party for drilling.
Favored Nation Clause
A provision in a gas purchase contract between a purchaser and a producer which increases the price to be paid for natural gas if any producer in the same field receives a higher price for natural gas than the price stipulated in the contract.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
An agency of the government of the United States created by an Act of Congress, the Department of Energy Organization Act, in 1977. This Act transferred to the FERC most of the former Federal Power Commission's interstate regulatory functions over the electric power and natural gas industries. The Act also transferred from the Interstate Commerce Commission the authority to set oil pipeline transportation rates and to set the value of oil pipelines for ratemaking purposes. In 1978, Congress passed the Natural Energy Act, broadening the FERC's jurisdiction and regulatory functions. The FERC now also regulates producer sales of natural gas in intrastate commerce. The FERC establishes uniform ceiling prices for each of several categories of natural gas, and these prices apply to all sales on a nationwide basis.
Federal Power Commission
An agency of the government of the United States created by an Act of Congress, the Federal Water Power Act, in 1920. Originally charged with regulating the nation's water resources, the FPC later assumed responsibility for regulating the electric power and natural gas industries that sell or transport electricity or gas for resale in interstate commerce. With respect to the gas industry, the general regulatory principles of the FPC were defined in the Natural Gas Act, as amended. In 1977, the FPC passed into history and the Department of Energy was created, incorporating the independent regulatory agency known as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
Feed Points
Connections between gas feeder lines and distribution networks.
Feeder (Main)
A gas main or supply line that delivers gas from a city gate station or other source of supply to the distribution networks.
Crude oil, a derivative thereof, or other raw material utilized in process equipment.
Contract provisions enabling a company to get out of gas purchase contracts based upon regulatory changes that are detrimental to the company.
FHLMC/Freddie Mac
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation is a publicly chartered agency in 1970 that buys qualifying residential mortgages from lenders, pools them into securities, provides certain guarantees, and then resells the securities on the open market.
Fiber Stress
The stress acting on a fiber or a strand of fibers in a piece of material that is subjected to an applied load.
The general area encompassed by one or more oil or gas reservoirs or pools that are located on a single geologic feature, that are otherwise closely related to the same geologic feature (either structural or stratigraphic). See POOL.
Field and Gathering Lines
Field Pressure
The pressure of natural gas as it is found in the underground formations from which it is produced.
Field Price
The price paid for natural gas at the wellhead or outlet of a central gathering point in a field.
Field Sales
Total sales from any field. Also, those sales made by a pipeline which occur in the gas supply areas and which typically do not require any part of the pipeline's transmission facilities.
Field Uses
Generally refers to any use of gas (or oil) within a field for the purpose of producing or treating the gas recovered or any associated oil produced. It may also include any gas taken by the lessor for his local use.
First-in, first-out method of inventory valuation by which the earliest-acquired natural gas in storage is assumed to be sold first and the most recently acquired is assumed to be still on hand.
Filed Rate Doctrine
The legal principle that protects regulated customers from receiving retroactive rate hikes.
Filed Rates
Rates in a general rate filing that a pipeline company proposes to place in effect one month after the filing date. These rates are usually suspended for five additional months by FERC.
A relatively inert material added to a plastic to modify its strength, permanence, working properties, or other qualities, or to lower costs.
A metal projection (of various design configurations) from the exterior surface of tubes in heat exchange equipment to increase the heat transfer area.
Fin-Fan Cooler
A dry cooler that passes cooling air over finned tubes, through which some hot fluid is being passed, during the cooling process. A fan is used to create movement of air over the finned tubes. Air movement is regulated in a number of ways, the most common being a variable speed fan.
Fire Brick
Heat resistant refractory ceramic material formed into bricks and used to line fire boxes of boilers, furnaces, or other combustion chambers.
Fire Clay
A special kind of clay that will not melt or fuse at high temperatures.
Fire Point
Minimum temperature at which a substance will continue to burn after being ignited.
Firing Rate
The rate at which fuel is fed to a burner, expressed as volume, heat units, or weight per unit time.
Firm Service
Service offered to customers (regardless of Class of Service) under schedules or contracts which anticipate no interruptions. The period of service may be for only a specified part of the year as in Off-Peak Service. Certain firm service contracts may contain clauses which permit unexpected interruption in case the supply to residential customers is threatened during an emergency. Compare INTERRUPTIBLE SERVICE and OFF-PEAK SERVICE.
Firm Transportation Service (FTS)
Transportation services for which facilities have been designed, installed, and dedicated to a certified quantity. Firm transportation service takes priority over interruptible service.
First Come, First Served
A capacity allocation method under which the first shipper to have requested service shall be the first to be offered such service. The pipeline is only obligated to provide service to a particular customer to the extent capacity is available.
First Hour Rating
The amount of hot water that the water heater can supply in the first hour of operation. It is a combination of how much water is stored in the water heater and how quickly the water heater can heat cold water to the desired temperature and is determined by the method of test developed by the Department of Energy.
An object left in the wellbore during drilling or workover operations that must be recovered or drilled around before work can proceed.
A metallic or plastic component used in joining lengths of pipe into various piping systems; includes couplings, ells, tees, crosses, reducers, unions, caps, and plugs.
Five Light Meter
Historically, a meter capable of measuring the volume of gas consumed by five gas lights. The capacity of these meters was about 150 cubic feet per hour.
Fixed Cost
Certain costs which in the aggregate do not vary in amount regardless of the quantity of gas sold or transported. See VARIABLE COSTS.
Fixed Variable
A classification method that assigns 100% of fixed costs to the demand component of the rate.
Fixed-Variable Method
A rate design method which assigns all fixed costs to the demand component and all variable costs to the commodity component of rates. This method was used by the FPC prior to 1952 and was superseded in 1952 by the Atlantic-Seaboard Method. See ATLANTIC SEABOARD, UNITED METHOD, and MODIFIED FIXED VARIABLE METHODS.
An ordinarily visible condition resulting from the rapid oxidation of a fuel which produces self-evident heat, light, or both.
Flame Detector
An element of the equipment used for flame supervision.
Flame Front
The plane along which combustion starts.
Flame Geometry
The measure of flame shape and dimension. Such shape can be produced by single or multiple burners.
Flame Test
Detection and identification of certain elements in gas by characteristic coloration imparted to a flame.
Flame Velocity
The speed at which flame progresses through a fuel-air mixture.
Flammable Limits
For pipe, a metal collar drilled with bolt holes and attached to the pipe with its flat surface at right angles to the pipe axis so that it can be securely bolted to a mating flange on a valve, another pipe section, etc.
Flange, Insulated
A pair of mating flanges equipped with insulating materials in a manner so that there is no electrical continuity between the flanges when installed.
Burning of gas for the purpose of safe disposal.
Flash Back
The burning of gas in the mixing chamber of a burner or in a piping system, usually due to an excess of primary air or too low a velocity of the combustible mixture through the burner part.
Flash Gas
Gas resulting from the process of gas liquefaction.
Flash Point
The lowest temperature at which the vapors arising from a liquid surface can be ignited by an open flame.
Flex Rates
Monthly price changes in rates, within a minimum/ maximum range.
Flexible Connector
A flexible tubing connecting a rigid pipe gas supply line to gas utilizing equipment.
Flexible Coupling
A mechanical connection between two pieces of machinery or two pipes to allow limited movement of the two parts relative to each other.
Flexural Strength
The stress, usually in pounds per square inch (psi), a specimen will withstand when subjected to a bending moment.
Flow Formulas
In the gas industry, formulas used to determine gas flow rates or pressure drops in pipelines, regulators, valves, meters, etc.
Flow Prover
Apparatus used to determine the accuracy of displacement meters. Types of provers include bell, critical flow, low pressure flow, piston and transfer.
Flow Restrictor
A device which reduces water flow at faucets or showerheads.
Flow-Through Method
An accounting method under which decreases or increases in state or federal income taxes resulting from the use of liberalized depreciation and the Investment Tax Credit for income tax purposes are carried down to net income in the year in which they are realized. For rate-making purposes, the flow-through method passes on savings from liberalized depreciation and investment credit to the benefit of rate payers through lower rates.
Passage for combustion products within furnace or boiler. Compare VENT, FLUE GAS.
Flue Collar
That portion of an appliance designed for the attachment of the draft hood or vent connector.
Flue Exhauster
A device installed in and made a part of the vent to provide a positive, induced, or balanced draft.
Flue Gas
Fluidized Bed Combustion
Coal is burned in a bed of limestone that is suspended by an upward flow of air and gases and forms a dry calcium sulfate waste.
Fly Ash
All solids, including cinders, ash, soot, or other partially incinerated matter, that are carried in a gas stream.
FNMA/Fannie Mae
Federal National Mortgage Association that is a publicly owned, government-sponsored corporation chartered in 1938 to purchase mortgages from lenders and either to hold them in portfolio or resell them to investors.
Foam Generation
Equipment, normally consisting of a generator and related material to produce foam for fire control particularly necessary for LNG spillover.
In a boiler, the carry-over of slugs of water into the piping due to dirty water or overloading of the boiler. Compare PRIMING.
Force Majeure
A superior force, "act of God" or unexpected and disruptive event, which may serve to relieve a party from a contract or obligation.
A geological term applied to an underground rock stratum; in the gas industry, usually the one from which gas or oil is produced.
Forward Haul
A transaction that results in the transportation of gas in the same direction of the aggregate physical flow of gas in the pipeline. This is typically achieved when the transporting pipeline redelivers gas at a point(s) downstream of the point(s) of receipt.
Fossil Dismantlement
The dismantlement and disposal of all buildings, structures, equipment, tanks and stacks at the site and restoration of the site to a usable condition.
Industry term used to refer to the method used to increase the deliverability of a production or underground storage well by pumping a liquid or other substance into a well under pressure to crack (fracture) and prop open the gas-bearing formation.
Process whereby saturated hydrocarbons from natural gas are separated into distinct parts of propane, butane, ethane, etc.
A process of opening up underground channels in hydrocarbon-bearing formations by force rather than by chemical action such as in acidizing. High pressure is hydraulically or explosively directed at the rock, causing it to fracture.
Franchise Gas
Natural gas provided by a utility to a governmental body, in a particular municipality, in exchange for franchise rights in that municipality.
Franchises and Consents
The right or privilege granted by a political subdivision to do business or perform specific services.
Free Driver
A customer who takes the same conservation actions as those customers who participate in a utility DSM program, without participating in the program.
Free Gas Reservoir
A gas reservoir without a related oil zone or oil ring where essentially all of the reservoir fluids are in a gaseous state.
Free Rider
A customer who participates in a utility DSM program, and thereby receives the services or financial incentives provided by the utility, who would have taken the same conservation actions in the absence of a DSM program.
Free Service
In DSM, an incentive in the form of assistance offered by utilities, such as energy audits and maintenance of equipment such as furnace tune-up programs.
Fuel and Shrinkage
The difference between the amount of gas produced at the wellhead and the gas that enters a pipeline. This includes separator losses, field uses including fuel, flare gas, and plant extraction losses.
Fuel Cell
System in which hydrogen is chemically reacted with oxygen to produce electricity.
Fuel Gas
A quantity of gas required by a transporter to provide the transportation service. Fuel gas includes, but is not limited to, gas consumed in transporter's mainline compressor stations, gathering system booster stations and processing plants.
Fuel Price Adjustment Clause
Fuel Substitution
The conversion of an end-use from one fuel source to another.
Full Requirements
A sale of power or energy by a utility in which the utility pledges to meet all of the customer's requirements.
Full Scale Program
A DSM program that is available to all eligible customers within a utility's service territory.
Functional Accounts
Groupings of plant and expense accounts according to the specified function or part they play in the rendition of utility service. Utility Plant Functional Accounts - Includes Intangible, Production, Transmission, Distribution, and General Plant. Operation and Maintenance Functional Expense Accounts - Includes Production, Storage, Transmission, Distribution, Customer Accounts, Sales and Administrative and General Expenses.
The process of assigning each component of a company's cost of service to the functions the company performs (e.g., production, storage, transmission, distribution).
Fungi Resistance
The ability of plastic pipe to withstand fungi growth and/or their metabolic products under normal conditions of service or laboratory tests simulating such conditions.
When used in a central heating system, this is a self-contained appliance for heating air by transfer of heat of combustion through metal to the air.
Furnace (Condensing)
Furnaces which recirculate the products of combustion and extract available heat to a point that causes condensation to occur. Some of this latent heat of vaporization is recovered as usable energy and results in higher operating efficiencies.
Furnace, Downflow
A forced-air type central furnace designed with air flow through the furnace essentially in a vertical path, discharging air at or near the bottom of the furnace.
Furnace, Duct
A central furnace designed for installation in a duct of an air distribution system to supply warm air for heating and which depends for air circulation on a blower not furnished as part of the furnace.
Furnace, Forced-Air
A central furnace equipped with a fan or blower which provides the primary means for circulation of air.
Furnace, Horizontal
A forced-air type central furnace designed with air flow through the furnace essentially in a horizontal path.
Furnace, Upflow
A central furnace designed with air flow through the furnace essentially in a vertical path, discharging air at or near the top of the furnace.
To join two plastic parts by softening the material with heat.
Futures Market
A market trading in contracts to buy and sell a

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